Also see Published Commentaries >>  

Bennett, R.P., Stewart, R.A., Hogan, P., Ptak, R.G., Mankowski, M.K., Hartman, T.L., Buckheit, R.W., Jr., Snyder, B.A., Salter, J.D., Morales, G.A., Smith, H.C.(2016). An analog of camptothecin inactive against Topoisomerase I is broadly neutralizing of HIV-1 through inhibition of Vif-dependent APOBEC3G degradation. Antiviral Research 136:51-9 PMID:27825797.

Polevoda, B., McDougall, W.M., Bennett, R.P., Salter, J.D., Smith, H.C. (2016) Structural and Functional Assessment of APOBEC3G Macromolecule Complexes.  Methods in Enzymology 107:10-22 PMID:26988126.

Salter, J.D., Bennett, R.P., Polevoda, B. and  Smith, H.C. (2016) The APOBEC Protein Family United by Structure, Divergent in Function. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, Cell Press. 41:578-94 PMID:27283515.

Hilimire, T.A., Bennett, R.P., Stewart, R.A., Garcia-Miranda, P., Blume, A., Becker, J., Sherer, N., Helms, E.D., Butcher, S.E., Smith, H.C., Miller, B.L.(2016). N-Methylation as a Strategy for Enhancing the Affinity and Selectivity of RNA-binding Peptides: Application to the HIV-1 Frameshift-Stimulating RNA. ACS Chemical Biology 11:88-94 . PMID:26496521.
Adjacent Digital Politics Ltd, Datum House November 2015. Are we standing in our own way on the path to a cure for HIV/AIDS? a commentary written by HC Smith.

Polevoda, B., MacDougall, W.M.,  Tun, B.N., Cheung, M., Salter, J.D., Friedman, A.E. and Smith, H.C. (2015) RNA Binding to APOBEC3G Induces the Disassembly of Functional Deaminase Complexes by Displacing ssDNA Substrates. Nucleic Acids Research 43:9434-45 PMC4627094. PMID:26424853.
Smith HC, (2015)
Starting Up the Road to Invention.
International Innovation. 185:82-85.

Ofori LO, Hilimire TA, Bennett RP, Brown NW, Smith HC, Miller BL (2014)
High-affinity recognition of HIV-1 frameshift-stimulating RNA alters frameshifting in vitro and interferes with HIV-1 infectivity.
J. Med. Chem.  J Med Chem. 57:723-32. PMID: 24387306

Prohaska KM, Bennett RP, Salter JD, Smith HC (2014) The Multifaceted Roles of RNA Binding in APOBEC Cytidine Deaminase Functions. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews RNA (2014) Jul-Aug;5(4):493-508.

Salter JD, Morales GA, Smith HC (2014) Structural Insights for HIV-1 Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Vif.
Trends Biochem Sci. 39:373-80.

Smith HC (2013) Curing Academic/Industrial Ills. Point of View, Genetic and Engineering News 33:6-8.

Smith HC, Bennett RP, Kizilyer A, McDougall WM, Prohaska KM (2012) ‘The Interaction of APOBEC Family Members with RNA as a Regulator of Cytidine Deaminase Activity on DNA’, in Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology (Maas, S., ed) Elsivier Press, 23: 258-268.

McDougall WM, Smith HC. (2011)
Direct Evidence that RNA Inhibits APOBEC3G ssDNA Cytidine Deaminase Activity Biochem Biophys Res Commun.  412:612-7.

McDougall WM, Okany C, Smith HC (2011)
Deaminase Activity on Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) Occurs in Vitro when APOBEC3G Cytidine Deaminase Forms Homotetramers and Higher-order Complexes J Biol Chem, 286: 30655–61

Smith HC (2011) APOBEC3G: a double agent in defense. Trends Biochem Sci. 2011 May;36(5):239-44. Epub 2011 Jan 14, PMID: 21239176

Galloway CA, Smith HC (2010) The expression of apoB mRNA editing factors is not the sole determinant for the induction of editing in differentiating Caco-2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun,391:659-63

Galloway CA, Kumar A, Krucinska J, Smith HC (2010) APOBEC-1 complementation factor (ACF) forms RNA-dependent multimers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun,398:38-43

Galloway CA, Ashton J, Sparks JD, Mooney RA, Smith HC (2010) Metabolic regulation of APOBEC-1 complementation factor trafficking in mouse models of obesity and its positive correlation with the expression of ApoB protein in hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta,1802:976-85

Salter JD, Krucinska J, Raina J, Smith HC, Wedekind JE (2009) A hydrodynamic analysis of APOBEC3G reveals a monomer-dimer-tetramer self-association that has implications for anti-HIV function. Biochemistry,48:10685-7

Smith HC (2009) The APOBEC1 Paradigm for Mammalian Cytidine Deaminases that Edit DNA and RNA, in DNA and RNA Modifications Enzymes. (Grosjean, H. ed), Landes BioSciences, Invited Chapter 15 pp. 181-202.

Bennett RP, Salter JD, Liu X, Wedekind JE, Smith HC (2008) APOBEC3G Subunits Self-associate via the C-terminal Deaminase Domain. J Biol Chem, 283:33329-36

Bennett RP, Presnyak V, Wedekind JE, Smith HC (2008) Nuclear Exclusion of the HIV-1 host defense factor APOBEC3G requires a novel cytoplasmic retention signal and is not dependent on RNA binding. J Biol Chem, 283:7320-7

Smith HC (2008) RNA and DNA Editing: Molecular Mechanisms and Their Integration into Biological Systems. (H.C. Smith, ed) 16 chapters, Wiley Press, NY.

Lehmann DM, Galloway CA, Macelrevey C, Sowden MP, Wedekind JE, Smith HC (2007) Functional characterization of APOBEC-1 complementation factor phosphorylation sites. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1773:408-18

Smith HC (2007) Measuring editing activity and identifying cytidine-to-uridine mRNA editing factors in cells and biochemical isolates. In Methods in Enzymology, RNA Editing & Modification (Gott, J., eds) Academic Press, NY, 424:389-416

Jin X, Wu H, Smith HC (2007) APOBEC3G levels predict rates of progression to AIDS. Retrovirology, 4:20-7

Miller HJ, Presnyak V, Smith HC (2007) The dimerization domain of HIV-1 viral infectivity factor Vif is required to block virion incorporation of APOBEC3G. Retrovirology, 4:81-91

Bennett RP, Diner E, Sowden MP, Lees JA, Wedekind JE, Smith HC (2006) APOBEC-1 and AID are nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking proteins but APOBEC3G cannot traffic. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 350:214-9

Ichikawa HT, Sowden MP, Torelli AT, Bachl J, Huang P, Dance GS, Marr SH, Robert J, Wedekind JE, Smith HC, Bottaro A (2006) Structural phylogenetic analysis of activation-induced deaminase function. J Immunol, 177:355-61

Wedekind JE, Gillilan R, Janda A, Krucinska J, Salter JD, Bennett RP, Raina J, Smith HC (2006) Nanostructures of APOBEC3G support a hierarchical assembly model of high molecular mass ribonucleoprotein particles from dimeric subunits. J Biol Chem, 281:38122-6

Smith HC (2006) Editing Informational Content of Expressed DNA Sequences and Their Transcripts. The Implicit Genome (Caporale, L.H. ed.) Oxford University Press, NY, Chapter 14, 248-265

Lehmann DM, Galloway CA, Sowden MP, Smith HC (2006) Metabolic regulation of apoB mRNA editing is associated with phosphorylation of APOBEC-1 complementation factor. Nucleic Acids Res, 34:3299-308

Smith HC, Wedekind JE, Xie K, Sowden MP (2005) Mammalian C to U Editing. Topics in Current Genetics: "Fine-Tuning of RNA Functions by Modification and Editing" H. Grosjean (Ed.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1610-2096

Jin X, Brooks A, Chen H, Bennett R, Reichman R, Smith H (2005) APOBEC3G (hA3G) mRNA Levels Associate Inversely with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Viremia. J. Virology, 79:11513-6

Xie K, Sowden MP, Dance GS, Torelli AT, Smith HC, Wedekind JE (2004) The structure of a yeast RNA-editing deaminase provides insight into the fold and function of activation-induced deaminase and APOBEC-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101:8114-9

Smith HC, Bottaro A, Sowden MP, Wedekind JE (2004) Activation induced deaminase: the importance of being specific. Trends Genet, 20:224-7

Sowden MP, Lehmann DM, Lin X, Smith CO, Smith HC (2004) Identification of novel alternative splice variants of APOBEC-1 complementation factor with different capacities to support apolipoprotein B mRNA editing. J Biol Chem, 279:197-206

Galloway CA, Sowden MP, Smith HC (2003) Increasing the yield of soluble recombinant protein expressed in E. coli by induction during late log phase. Biotechniques, 34:524-6

Wedekind JE, Dance GS, Sowden MP, Smith HC (2003) Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking roles in the family business. Trends Genet, 19:207-16

Sowden MP, Ballatori N, Jensen KL, Reed LH, Smith HC (2002) The editosome for cytidine to uridine mRNA editing has a native complexity of 27S: identification of intracellular domains containing active and inactive editing factors. J Cell Sci, 115:1027-39

Yang Y, Ballatori N, Smith HC (2002) Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing and the reduction in synthesis and secretion of the atherogenic risk factor, apolipoprotein B100 can be effectively targeted through TAT-mediated protein transduction. Mol Pharmacol, 61:269-76

Smith HC (2002) A course director's perspectives on problem-based learning curricula in biochemistry. Acad Med, 77:1189-98

Dance GS, Sowden MP, Cartegni L, Cooper E, Krainer AR, Smith HC (2002) Two proteins essential for apolipoprotein B mRNA editing are expressed from a single gene through alternative splicing. J Biol Chem, 277:12703-9

Sowden MP, Smith HC (2001) Commitment of apolipoprotein B RNA to the splicing pathway regulates cytidine-to-uridine editing-site utilization. Biochem J, 359:697-705

Yang Y, Sowden MP, Smith HC (2001) Intracellular trafficking determinants in APOBEC-1, the catalytic subunit for cytidine to uridine editing of apolipoprotein B mRNA. Exp Cell Res, 267:153-64

Giangreco A, Sowden MP, Mikityansky I, Smith HC (2001) Ethanol stimulates apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in the absence of de novo RNA or protein synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 289:1162-7

Dance GS, Beemiller P, Yang Y, Mater DV, Mian IS, Smith HC (2001) Identification of the yeast cytidine deaminase CDD1 as an orphan C-->U RNA editase. Nucleic Acids Res, 29:1772-80

Yang Y, Sowden MP, Smith HC (2000) Induction of cytidine to uridine editing on cytoplasmic apolipoprotein B mRNA by overexpressing APOBEC-1. J Biol Chem, 275:22663-9

Dance GS, Sowden MP, Yang Y, Smith HC (2000) APOBEC-1 dependent cytidine to uridine editing of apolipoprotein B RNA in yeast. Nucleic Acids Res, 28:424-9

Steinburg MF, Schock D, Backus JW, Smith HC (1999) Tissue-specific differences in the role of RNA 3' of the apolipoprotein B mRNA mooring sequence in editosome assembly. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 263:81-6

Siddiqui JF, Van Mater D, Sowden MP, Smith HC (1999) Disproportionate relationship between APOBEC-1 expression and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing activity. Exp Cell Res, 252:154-64

Smith HC, Hundert EM (1999) Integrating molecular medicine into the medical school curriculum. Molecular Medicine Today 5:102-103, Invited commentary.

Sowden MP, Collins HL, Smith HC, Garrow TA, Sparks JD, Sparks CE (1999) Apolipoprotein B mRNA and lipoprotein secretion are increased in McArdle RH-7777 cells by expression of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. Biochem J, 341 ( Pt 3):639-45

Van Mater D, Sowden MP, Cianci J, Sparks JD, Sparks CE, Ballatori N, Smith HC (1998) Ethanol increases apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in rat primary hepatocytes and McArdle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 252:334-9

Stewart J, Kozlowski P, Sowden M, Messing E, Smith HC (1998) A quantitative assay for assessing allelic proportions by iterative gap ligation. Nucleic Acids Res, 26:961-6

Sowden MP, Eagleton MJ, Smith HC (1998) Apolipoprotein B RNA sequence 3' of the mooring sequence and cellular sources of auxiliary factors determine the location and extent of promiscuous editing. Nucleic Acids Res, 26:1644-52

Yang Y, Kovalski K, Smith HC (1997) Partial characterization of the auxiliary factors involved in apolipoprotein B mRNA editing through APOBEC-1 affinity chromatography. J Biol Chem, 272:27700-6

Smith HC Gott JM Hanson MR (1997) A guide to RNA editing.. RNA, 3:1105-23

Yang Y, Smith HC (1997) Multiple protein domains determine the cell type-specific nuclear distribution of the catalytic subunit required for apolipoprotein B mRNA editing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94:13075-80

Sparks JD, Collins HL, Sabio I, Sowden MP, Smith HC, Cianci J, Sparks CE (1997) Effects of fatty acids on apolipoprotein B secretion by McArdle RH-7777 rat hepatoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1347:51-61

Phung TL, Sowden MP, Sparks JD, Sparks CE, Smith HC (1996) Regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein B RNA editing in the genetically obese Zucker rat. Metabolism, 45:1056-8

Smith HC Sowden MP (1996) Base-modification mRNA editing through deamination--the good, the bad and the unregulated.. Trends Genet., 12:418-24

Sowden M, Hamm JK, Spinelli S, Smith HC (1996) Determinants involved in regulating the proportion of edited apolipoprotein B RNAs. Rna, 2:274-88

Yang Y, Smith HC (1996) In vitro reconstitution of apolipoprotein B RNA editing activity from recombinant APOBEC-1 and McArdle cell extracts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 218:797-801

Sowden M, Hamm JK, Smith HC (1996) Overexpression of APOBEC-1 results in mooring sequence-dependent promiscuous RNA editing. J Biol Chem, 271:3011-7

Schock D, Kuo SR, Steinburg MF, Bolognino M, Sparks JD, Sparks CE, Smith HC (1996) An auxiliary factor containing a 240-kDa protein complex is involved in apolipoprotein B RNA editing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93:1097-102

Skuse GR, Cappione AJ, Sowden M, Metheny LJ, Smith HC (1996) The neurofibromatosis type I messenger RNA undergoes base-modification RNA editing. Nucleic Acids Res, 24:478-85

Folpe A, Lapham LW, Smith HC (1995) Herpes simplex myelitis as a cause of the acute necrotizing myelitis syndrome. , 44:1955-1957

Davidson NO, Innerarity TL, Scott J, Smith HC, Driscoll DM, Teng B, Chan L (1995) Proposed nomenclature for the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme: APOBEC-1. RNA, 1:3

Backus JW, Schock D, Smith HC (1994) Only cytidines 5' of the apolipoprotein B mRNA mooring sequence are edited. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1219:1-14

Backus JW, Smith HC (1994) Specific 3' sequences flanking a minimal apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA editing 'cassette' are critical for efficient editing in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1217:65-73

Smith HC, Howell RL & Ludlow JW (1994) "Alterations in cell cycle control factors and the induction of oxygen-regulated stress proteins by hypoxic stress". Cell Biology of Trauma. Lemasters, J.J. and Oliver, C.,. : CRC Press, Inc, 213-225

Ludlow JW, Howell RL, Smith HC (1993) Hypoxic stress induces reversible hypophosphorylation of pRB and reduction in cyclin A abundance independent of cell cycle progression. Oncogene, 8:331-9

Barnes C, Smith HC (1993) Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in vitro is a zinc-dependent process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 197:1410-4

Smith HC (1993) Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing: the sequence to the event. Semin Cell Biol, 4:267-78

Harris SG, Sabio I, Mayer E, Steinberg MF, Backus JW, Sparks JD, Sparks CE, Smith HC (1993) Extract-specific heterogeneity in high-order complexes containing apolipoprotein B mRNA editing activity and RNA-binding proteins. J Biol Chem, 268:7382-92

Backus JW, Smith HC (1992) Three distinct RNA sequence elements are required for efficient apolipoprotein B (apoB) RNA editing in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res, 20:6007-14

Sparks JD, Zolfaghari R, Sparks CE, Smith HC, Fisher EA (1992) Impaired hepatic apolipoprotein B and E translation in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Clin Invest, 89:1418-30

Harris SG, Smith HC (1992) In vitro apolipoprotein B mRNA editing activity can be modulated by fasting and refeeding rats with a high carbohydrate diet. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 183:899-903

Smith HC (1992) "Organization of nuclear mRNA splicing domains" In: Current Topics in Cell Regulation  Academic Press, New York, NY.  Vol. 34 p.145-166

Butler AJ, Eagleton MJ, Wang D, Howell RL, Strauch AR, Khasgiwala V, Smith HC (1991) Induction of the proliferative phenotype in differentiated myogenic cells by hypoxia. J Biol Chem, 266:18250-8

Roll DE, Murphy BJ, Laderoute KR, Sutherland RM, Smith HC (1991) Oxygen regulated 80 kDa protein and glucose regulated 78kDa protein are identical. Mol Cell Biochem, 103:141-8

Smith HC, Kuo SR, Backus JW, Harris SG, Sparks CE, Sparks JD (1991) In vitro apolipoprotein B mRNA editing: identification of a 27S editing complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88:1489-93

Backus JW, Smith HC (1991) Apolipoprotein B mRNA sequences 3' of the editing site are necessary and sufficient for editing and editosome assembly. Nucleic Acids Res, 19:6781-6

Boix J, Habets WJ, van Venrooij WJ, Smith HC (1990) Analysis of U1snRNP-specific A protein cross-linked complexes. FEBS Lett, 272:213-6

Backus JW, Eagleton MJ, Harris SG, Sparks CE, Sparks JD, Smith HC (1990) Quantitation of endogenous liver apolipoprotein B mRNA editing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 170:513-8

Liew CC, Smith HC (1989) Immunological evidence for the role of phosphoprotein p68/pI = 7.3 in premessenger RNA splicing. FEBS Lett, 248:101-4

Smith HC  (1989) "Ribonucleoprotein organization:  from cell nucleus to RNP", In:  Structural Aspects of Metabolic Regulation  UCLA Symp. Molec. Cell. Biol.  Srere, P., Jones, M.E. and Mathews, C. eds., A.R. Liss, Inc., 134:43-56.

Smith HC, Harris SG, Zillmann M, Berget SM (1989) Evidence that a nuclear matrix protein participates in premessenger RNA splicing. Exp Cell Res, 182:521-33

Harris SG, Martin TE, Smith HC (1988) Reversible chemical cross-linking and ribonuclease digestion analysis of the organization of proteins in ribonucleoprotein particles. Mol Cell Biochem, 84:17-28

Harris SG, Smith HC (1988) SnRNP core protein enrichment in the nuclear matrix. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 152:1383-7

Harris SG, Hoch SO, Smith HC (1988) Chemical cross-linking of Sm and RNP antigenic proteins. Biochemistry, 27:4595-600

Smith HC, Ochs RL, Lin D, Chinault AC (1987) Ultrastructural and biochemical comparisons of nuclear matrices prepared by high salt or LIS extraction. Mol Cell Biochem, 77:49-61

Smith HC, Rothblum LI (1987) Ribosomal DNA sequences attached to the nuclear matrix. Biochem Genet, 25:863-79

Smith HC, Ochs RL, Fernandez EA, Spector DL (1986) Macromolecular domains containing nuclear protein p107 and U-snRNP protein p28: further evidence for an in situ nuclear matrix. Mol Cell Biochem, 70:151-68

Spector DL, Smith HC (1986) Redistribution of U-snRNPs during mitosis. Exp Cell Res, 163:87-94

Busch H, Ochs RL, Smith HC & Spector DL (1985) Nuclear antigenic structures. Scan. J. Rheum. 56:10-21.

Smith HC, Spector DL, Woodcock CLF, Ochs RL, Bhorjee J (1985)
Alterations in chromatin conformation are accompanied by reorganization of nonchromatin domains that contain U-snRNP proteins and nuclear protein p107. J. Cell Biol., 101:560-567

Gupta RC, Dighe NR, Randerath K, Smith HC (1985) Distribution of initial and persistent 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced DNA adducts within DNA loops. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 82:6605-8

Tubo RA, Smith HC, Berezney R (1985) The nuclear matrix continues DNA synthesis at in vivo replicational forks. Biochim Biophys Acta, 825:326-34

Smith HC, Berezney R, Brewster JM, Rekosh D (1985) Properties of adenoviral DNA bound to the nuclear matrix. Biochemistry, 24:1197-1202

Smith HC, Puvion E, Buchholtz LA, Berezney R (1984) Spatial distribution of DNA loop attachment and replicational sites in the nuclear matrix. J Cell Biol, 99:1794-802

Smith HC, Berezney R (1983) Dynamic domains of DNA polymerase alpha in regenerating rat liver. Biochemistry, 22:3042-6

Berezny R, Basler J, Bucholtz LA, Smith HC & Siegel A. (1982) Nuclear organization and DNA replication.  The Nuclear Envelope and Nuclear Matrix. (Maul, G.G., ed.) A.R. Liss Pub. Co., pp. 183-197

Smith HC, Berezney R (1982) Nuclear matrix-bound deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis: an in vitro system. Biochemistry, 21:6751-61

Smith HC, Berezney R (1980) DNA polymerase alpha is tightly bound to the nuclear matrix of actively replicating liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 97:1541-7